Sunday, December 10, 2017

The management efficiency : cost-to-income of the italian banks.

The cost to income ratio is equal to the operating costs divided by the intermediation margin. 
In other words, using the bank balance sheets items, it is equal to the following expression :

COST/INCOME RATIO : operating costs ("item 230") / total banking income ("item 120")

The meaning is : the lower the value expressed by the indicator, the greater the efficiency of the bank. Usually, the index is expressed as a percentage. Otherwise, the operating expenses are a percentage of the operating income. The ratio is also useful to value the productivity and the profitability for the banks. 

Here we have a sample : it is the peer group of the main banks, in Italy. In order to have a fair comparison, I used the adjusted results and I used the same criteria with regard to the same period, last year (we speak about the nine months ended on 30th September 2017 and about the nine months ended on 30th September 2016). For further info, please consult the notes below the table (1-7) and visit the section investor relations. 

At a glance, we can notice that : 

  • The efficiency is substantially the same compared to last year ; indeed, we can see a slight improvement, in general.
  • We have two banks that represent the outliers of the peer group : CVAL and CRG ; the ratios had a strong worsening, compared to the nine months of the year 2016. 
  • In the same way, we have other outliers (by the positive side), FBK and BGN. However, the two banks have a similar cost/income ratio, substantially, compared to last year. Reasoning by p.p. : by the negative side, about + 60 p.p. ; by the positive side, about from -2 to -7 p.p. (2017 vs 2016). 
  • Following the considerations of the previous points, it is more useful to focus on the median than on the mean. See the following table. 

Finally, the bar chart is much more explanatory. The two period have two colors, respectively, the light blue for the year 2017 and the red for the year 2016. The median is highlighted by a horizontal line.

With the aim of ranking the abovementioned banks, we have :

1) BGN ; 2) FBK ; 3) ISP ; 4) IFIS; 5) BPSO ; 6) MED ; 7) UCG ; 8) BMPS ; 9) BPER ; 10) UBI ; 11) CREDEM ; 12) BANCO BPM ; 13) CVAL ; 14) CRG.

Saturday, November 11, 2017

UCG S.p.A. : chart framework.

From a lateral trend (July-until the end of the year 2017), the stock began an uptrend until about mid-year (2017). More recently, UCG has a lateral trend again. This trend has just formed : in this way, it needs to monitor the next trading sessions, to better understand the subsequent events. 

The first lateral trend is indentified by the two horizontal lines : the support at about 9 EUR and the resistance at about 12 EUR. The uptrend is identified by the two bullish TLs, respectively, below and above the price chart. The previous resistance (12 EUR) becomes support and then, we have another resistance at about 15 EUR. The last one price level is important also for the raison that, between 14 and 15 EUR, we can notice a gap up in the chart. This gap up is a valid level in order to set bearish or bullish trading strategies (see the yellow stripe in the following chart). 
Finally, we can notice the abovementioned lateral trend : it is indentified in the same way like the previous one by the horizontal lines (supports and resistances). The support and resistance levels are light blue circles.  

The trend is also shown by the slope of the EMA 40 (red line) : the sequence is flat-upward sloping-flat. Another aspect is that the EMA can be an indicator of the volatility of the asset : wider deviation  of the price chart from the EMA, higher volality and viceversa. This arrangement is useful to set purchase or sale orders. 

Chart from

If we extend the timeframe, we get the same conclusions : with a weekly chart, the sequence is lateral trend-uptrend-lateral trend. Now, the RSI is not overbought : the allert levels are 30 and 70. Previously, there was a "RSI exhaust",  an oversold, in the first half of the year 2016. 

Chart from

Lastly, it's interesting to see the FIBO retracements (see the chart below). I set the 100% and the 0% FIBO level, respectively at the bottom (8.54 EUR) and at the top (18.36 EUR). The yellow circles indentify the previous price levels (supports and resistances). This is another confirmation. 

Chart from

This is the substantial chart framework. However, we must not to forget that other factors influence the stock market. UCG belongs to the banking sector. In this way, primarily, it means that its price will be directly correlated to the macroaggregate events and to the italian economy and italian politics. The beta of the stock is about 1.93 : we have an high leverage compared to the FTSE-mib. 

Data source :

The comparative chart UCG-FTSE-mib is very explanatory.

Chart from